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By Stuart F. Fairgrieve
This publication offers a comprehenisve survey of the degradation and stabilisation approaches particular to fragrant polyesters, together with thermal, thermo-oxidative, chemical, mild and radiation degradation and stabilisation. present wisdom of some of these facets is mentioned and analysed, and a few feedback made as to additional reports which would strengthen the topic. fabrics lined contain recognized polyesters resembling poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(butylene terephthalate), in the course of the much less recognized poly(alkylene naphthalate)s and liquid crystalline polyesters, to "new" components resembling poly(trimethylene terephthalate). additionally coated are a number of the technique of chemically recycling fragrant polyesters into their beginning fabrics and/or different important chemical feedstock, together with present learn into advancements in chemistry and economics of such techniques, and knowledge on advertisement companies accomplishing such recycling. With over one thousand references to papers and patents, this ebook presents either a hugely specific resource of data at the degradation and stabilisation of fragrant polyesters in itself, and an invaluable start line for additional learn of this subject either by means of educational and commercial staff during this box. these studying or production fragrant polyester formulations to be used in fibres, motion pictures, packaging, automobile functions and engineering functions will locate a lot to curiosity them right here. A better half quantity at the degradation and stabilisation of aliphatic polyesters, with insurance together with degradable fabrics and polyesters fabricated from renewable assets, is presently in education.
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Additional info for Degradation and Stabilisation of Aromatic Polyesters
Mass spectra were dominated by a series of ions which could be cyclic, or open-chain, and oligomers with unsaturated and carboxyl end groups. Comparison with specially prepared samples of cyclic and open-chain oligomers led the authors to conclude that the species found were cyclic, and that such species are the true primary pyrolysis products, formed via intramolecular exchange (ionic) reactions. These cyclic species are then proposed to further decompose by a B-hydrogen transfer, involving a six-membered intermediate transition state, to generate the open chain species with unsaturated and carboxyl end groups.
44. J. E. Contois, Journal of Polymer Science, 1958, 28, 275. 45. S. Poulin-Dandurand, S. Perez, J-F. Revol and F. Brisse, Polymer, 20, 4, 419. 46. J. H. Z. Neisser, Polymer, 1979, 20, 5, 545. 47. M. Z. Ke and M. Chen, Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 20 7529. 48. H. G. Pass, Polymer, 1976, 17, 9, 807. 19 Degradation and Stabilisation of Aromatic Polyesters 49. J. G. , assignee; US 2901466, 1959. 50. A. Boye, Journal of Polymer Science, 1961, 55, 1, 275. 51. B. Remillard and F. Brisse, Polymer, 1982, 23, 13, 1960.
Chain scission via the familiar six-membered ring intermediate would give an acid end group and an unsaturated end group. The rate of the reaction is unlikely to be affected by catalyst residues for the same reason given in the case of PBT. As before, there are two main possible subsequent steps: (i) a further scission via a six-membered intermediate to give an unsaturated low molecular weight species, or (ii) creation of a low molecular weight hydroxyl species via ester exchange or hydrolysis: ~Ph(C=O)OCH2CH=CH2 ‡ ~Ph(C=O)OH + CH2=C=CH2 ~Ph(C=O)OCH2CH=CH2 ‡ ~Ph(C=O)OH + CH2=CHCH2OH The expected species are therefore allene and allyl alcohol.
Degradation and Stabilisation of Aromatic Polyesters by Stuart F. Fairgrieve