Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic - download pdf or read online
By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard
This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics in regards to the research of stressful and element (TA) markers in a number of languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal international and the actual global” (Declerck). All contributions, additionally, take on those difficulties from a kind of cognitive viewpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to offer a unifying reason behind all utilization kinds, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the idea that the semantics of TA different types basically refers to subjective, instead of goal, issues. the amount additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to collect bills of TA marking (in a number of languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. finally, this quantity goals to give a contribution to setting up an know-how that modal that means components are without delay appropriate to the research of the grammar of time.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality (Human Cognitive Processing)
Nevertheless, I have argued (Langacker 1991: 2001) that the English present can in fact be analyzed quite successfully as marking present time. I have suggested that its “naïve” characterization, as indicating coincidence with the time of speaking, is basically valid. This account has been criticized by Brisard (1999, 2001, 2002), who has argued in general against time-line Ronald W. Langacker descriptions of tense, proposing in particular that the English present is best characterized as having a kind of modal import, which I will refer to as epistemic immediacy.
The residue situation is conceived of as actualizing in that nonfactual world. The stronger the intensional meaning of the verb, the less likely it is for the intensional world to coincide with the factual world. In the case of the strongest intensional verb (imagine) the intensional world is even normally interpreted as counterfactual. The semantics of the verb thus has to do with the likelihood of compatibility with the factual world. This means that such an intensional verb expresses a kind of factuality value, so that the intensional world can be called an epistemic modal world.
Necessity, possibility) between the modal world and the factual world. The difference between epistemic modality and root modality is determined by the interpretation-in-context of the auxiliary. g. ‘necessarily factual’). In the case of root modality, the relation between the nonfactual world and the factual one is not an epistemic relation. e. about the chances that the two worlds coincide. g. volition, obligation, possibility) assumed by the speaker. The number of possible modal positions is restricted.
Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality (Human Cognitive Processing) by Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard