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By V. Paul Wright, V. P. Wright Maurice E. Tucker
Carbonate rocks (limestones and dolomites) represent an enormous a part of the geological column and comprise not just 60% of the world's recognized hydrocarbons but in addition host huge mineral deposits. This booklet represents the 1st significant assessment of carbonate sedimentology because the mid 1970's. it truly is aimed toward the complex undergraduate - postgraduate point and also will be of significant curiosity to geologists operating within the oil undefined. Carbonate Sedimentology is designed to take the reader from the elemental features of limestone acceptance and class via to an appreciation of the newest advancements resembling huge scale facies modelling and isotope geochemistry. Novel points of the publication contain an in depth assessment of carbonate mineralogy, non-marine carbonate depositional environments and an in-depth examine carbonate deposition and diagenesis via geologic time. furthermore, the reports of person depositional platforms tension a process-based procedure instead of one founded on basic comparative sedimentology. the original caliber of this e-book is that it includes built-in stories of carbonate sedimentology and diagenesis, inside one quantity.
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Extra info for Carbonate Sedimentology
In the general and much-cited model of Irwin (1965). for epi-continental seas, a low-energy, below wave-base zone X of the open sea, gives way to a relatively narrow zone Y of higher energy where waves impinge on the seafloor and there are strong tidal currents. Beyond this, in zone Z up to hundreds of kilometres wide, there is restricted circulation, tidal effects are minimal, and storm-wave action is only periodically significant. Hypo- and/or hypersalinities are likely in zone Z. The dominant processes affecting epeiric platform sedimentation in tideless epeiric seas would have been storms, their frequency, direction and magnitude con·trolled by climatic factors.
One particular type of buildup which developed on outer ramps (also on slopes up to shelves), especially during the Palaeozoic, is the mud mound (also called reef knoll or mud bank). Composed largely of micrite, usually clotted and pelleted, they GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND I 51 usually had some form of seafloor relief, as shown by flank beds which slope off the mound structure with dips up to 20°. Mud mounds do not appear to contain any metazoan frame-builders, and this has given rise to much discussion, posing two questions: how did mound structure form, and where did all the lime mud come from?
The distinctive sediments of the inner ramp are carbonate sands formed in the agitated shallow subtidal shoreface zone (above fairweather wave-base) and low intertidal. On a ramp, wave energy is not as intense as along a shelf margin where oceanic swell and storm waves are suddenly confronted with a shallow steep slope. Nevertheless, the gradual shoaling of a ramp does result in relatively strong wave action in the shoreface-intertidal zone and this permits the formation of shoreline carbonate sand bodies.
Carbonate Sedimentology by V. Paul Wright, V. P. Wright Maurice E. Tucker