Eric V. Meeks's Border Citizens: The Making of Indians, Mexicans, and Anglos PDF
By Eric V. Meeks
Runner-up, nationwide Council on Public background publication Award, 2008
Southwest ebook Award, Border nearby Library organization, 2008
Borders reduce via not only areas but additionally relationships, politics, economics, and cultures. Eric V. Meeks examines how ethno-racial different types and identities akin to Indian, Mexican, and Anglo crystallized in Arizona's borderlands among 1880 and 1980. South-central Arizona is domestic to many ethnic teams, together with Mexican americans, Mexican immigrants, and semi-Hispanicized indigenous teams corresponding to Yaquis and Tohono O'odham. Kinship and cultural ties among those assorted teams have been altered and ethnic barriers have been deepened by way of the inflow of Euro-Americans, the improvement of an business economic system, and incorporation into the U.S. nation-state.
Old ethnic and interethnic ties replaced and have become tougher to maintain whilst Euro-Americans arrived within the quarter and imposed ideologies and govt guidelines that developed starker racial limitations. As Arizona started to take its position within the nationwide financial system of the us, basically via mining and commercial agriculture, ethnic Mexican and local American groups struggled to outline their very own identities. they typically under pressure their prestige because the region's unique population, occasionally as employees, occasionally as U.S. electorate, and infrequently as individuals in their personal separate international locations. within the procedure, they typically challenged the racial order imposed on them by means of the dominant class.
Appealing to wide audiences, this booklet hyperlinks the development of racial different types and ethnic identities to the bigger strategy of geographical region development alongside the U.S.-Mexico border, and illustrates how ethnicity can either convey humans jointly and force them apart.
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Extra resources for Border Citizens: The Making of Indians, Mexicans, and Anglos in Arizona
The 1920 census lists the majority of “Papagos” at Ajo as general laborers in the copper plant, “Mexicans” as miners and mine laborers, and “whites” as skilled workers, managers, and foremen. As in other mining communities, the company maintained racial boundaries both in the mines and in town—not only between whites and nonwhites, but also between Indians and Mexicans. The O’odham were restricted to an area that became known as Ajo Indian village. 52 a n a gr i c ult ur a l emp ir e Mowry’s vision of an agricultural empire stretching from the Salt River in Arizona to the Yaqui and Mayo rivers in Sonora was slower to develop than the mining empire, but by 1880 it was well under way.
Once they harvested these crops, they would migrate either to villages near mountain springs for the winter or live among more sedentary O’odham, such as the Pimas along the Gila River or the Sobaipuri along the Santa Cruz. Tohono O’odham men supplemented agriculture with hunting, and women supplemented it with the gathering of seeds and cactus fruit. 23 A linguistically unrelated group called the Maricopas lived just to the west of the Pimas along the Gila River. The Maricopas were Yuma speakers who had migrated from the Colorado River not long before Spaniards arrived in the region.
In Arizona, agencies such as the Geological Survey, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the Reclamation Service (renamed the Bureau of Reclamation in 1923) determined where agricultural development would take place and who would benefit from it. Race played a significant role in these decisions. As large-scale irrigation projects led to the rise of mechanized commercial farms, many ethnic Mexican and indigenous farmers lost access to water through upriver diversions and erosion. Thousands would fi nd themselves with little choice but to work for wages in the burgeoning mining industry, on the railroads, and on new commercial farms.
Border Citizens: The Making of Indians, Mexicans, and Anglos in Arizona by Eric V. Meeks