Download e-book for kindle: Basic Photographic Materials and Processes by Leslie Stroebel, John Compton, Ira Current, Richard D. Zakia

By Leslie Stroebel, John Compton, Ira Current, Richard D. Zakia

ISBN-10: 0080499848

ISBN-13: 9780080499840

ISBN-10: 0240804058

ISBN-13: 9780240804057

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THE MEASUREMENT OF LUMINANCE Luminance can be defined as the rate at which the unit area of a source emits light in a specific direction. If a source is not a point source but has an appreciable size (as all real sources do), it is less useful to describe the intensity of such a source than to specify its luminance. Luminance is derived from intensity measurements, which are then related to the projected surface of the source. 30–1988 Comparison viewing/ critical appraisal Display, judging, & routine inspection Transparency viewing 2200 ± 470 lux 800 ± 200 lux 1400 ± 300 cd/m2 The inverse-square law does not apply to luminance, which does not change with viewing or measurement distance.

A working idea of this unit may be obtained by holding a lighted candle one foot from a newspaper in an otherwise darkened room. The result will be approximately one footcandle of illumination. 02 footcandle; a well-lighted street gives approximately 5 footcandles; a well-lighted classroom has nearly 50 footcandles of illumination; in daylight in open shade there are approximately 1,500 footcandles of illumination, and in direct sunlight approximately 12,000 footcandles. To photograph a moonlit scene on ISO 100 speed film would require an exposure of about 10 seconds at f/2, plus any additional exposure required to compensate for the reciprocity effect resulting from the long exposure time.

5 lm/W 4—Color Temperature 200W tungsten lamp 4,000 lm 20 lm/W —————————————— 500W tungsten lamp (3200 K) 13,500 lm 27 lm/W Photographic lamp 3200 K 500W tungsten lamp (Photoflood) 17,000 lm 34 lm/W Photoflood lamp 3400 K 100W fluorescent 4,600 lm 46 lm/W Photographic daylight 5500 K 200W high pressure mercury 19,000 lm 45 lm/W 5—Mired Shift 200W high pressure mercury 22,000 lm 75 lm/W —————————————— 85B Filter +131 µrd 80A Filter –131 µrd REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Diffraction of light that passes through a small opening is more easily explained with the .

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Basic Photographic Materials and Processes by Leslie Stroebel, John Compton, Ira Current, Richard D. Zakia

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