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By Gilbert Lazard
The sequence is a platform for contributions of all types to this quickly constructing box. basic difficulties are studied from the viewpoint of person languages, language households, language teams, or language samples. Conclusions are the results of a deepened examine of empirical information. unique emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose research may possibly shed new gentle on long-standing difficulties more often than not linguistics.
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Extra info for Actancy
31). g. (32), French. (31) Μon frere, sa maison, je ne I 'ai pas encore vue. 'My brother's house I am yet to see' (32) Cet enfant, c 'est une correction que je vais lui administrer. 3. Every language possesses most of the techniques for marking the intent, but their occurrence varies from one language to another. English, for instance, more readily than French, stresses one or another of the words of a sentence to highlight its rhematic value. In different African languages and Yukaghir the intent is necessarily indicated by the form of the conjugation (see above (30)).
The term "concentric" has been used (Milewski 1950, repr. 3) or actant indexes. In these languages the verb form is often highly complex, and the noun phrases accompanying it appear as specifiers of the verb's internal morphemes. This type includes the north-west Caucasian, Bantu and various Amerind languages. "Excentric" languages, on the other hand, are those in which the verb is restricted to a lexeme, possibly endowed with morphemes of tense/aspect/ mood, but with no affixes referring to actant NPs, the latter being equipped with their own case suffixes or adpositions; examples include Chinese, Japanese and south-east Asian languages.
In Avar as in Latin the word order is not grammatically relevant. There is nonetheless a fundamental difference between the constructions in the two languages, a difference not reflected in the formulae of the actancy schemata, as they take no account of the identity of the actants. In Latin it is Quintus which in (6) has the same grammatical properties as the single actant in (7): nominative case and agreement of the verb. e. the "translation" of Marcum, which in (8) has the grammatical properties of the single actant in (9): absolutive case and agreement of the verb.
Actancy by Gilbert Lazard