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Object plurality is marked using the object-plural prefix ka…-, resulting in forms such as those in (61): (61) tuksá…n ‘he hits you’ ka…tuksá…n ‘he hits you guys’ kinka…tuksá…n ‘he hits us’ tatuksá…n ‘they hit you’ ka…tatuksá…n ‘they hit you guys’ kinka…tatuksá…n ‘they hit us’ In the absence of a specific first-person plural object marker, UNT makes use of a combination of the first-person object prefix (kin-), the second-person object suffix (-n), and the plural object prefix (ka…-). UNT does not allow the co-occurrence of the plural-object and thirdperson plural subject prefixes in clauses with third person subject and object, as in (62): (62) a.

3. Perfect As in most languages where the category exists, the perfect is used to refer to situations or actions that occurred in the past relative to the speech act (present perfect) or to some point in time in the past (past perfect) to which they are relevant (Dahl 1985). INC — — ka…musu…niÔ…táuw 2PL kila…musu…niÔ…táuw — ka…musu…niÔ…tantít 3PL kinka…tamusu…niÔ…tán ka…tamusu…niÔ…tán tamusu…níÔ… Table 24: Perfect transitive forms (√musú… ‘kiss someone’) differentiate the verbal inflection classes.

2. Tense Tense-marking in UNT is relatively straightforward and involves few morphophonemic complications. INC taßtuyá…uw ißtaßtuyá…uw nataßtuyá…uw 2PL taßtuyaÓ…tít ißtaßtuyaÓ…tít nataßtuyaÓ…tít 3PL tataßtú ißtataßtú natataßtú Table 15: Tense paradigms (√taßtú ‘leave’) As shown in Table 15, the present tense is non-marked, while the past takes the prefix iß- and the future takes the prefix na-. These prefixes are relatively inert morphologically, although the past-tense prefix interacts with the first-person subject prefix, ik-, to become ßak-, while the future forms of the first-person singular and plural exclusive are usually realized as nak-.

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A grammatical sketch of Upper Necaxa Totonac by Beck, David


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